Islamic Code of Conduct

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اسلامی ضابطۂ حیات

Despite being the progeny of a single couple Adam and Eve, human beings have been spreading in different parts of the world since antiquity in order to meet their financial needs. These scattered people have always lived in separate villages, towns and countries. For this reason, Allah, the Almighty sent prophets and messengers to those communities at regional level and not at global or international level; inasmuch as their messages were limited to the communities for which they were sent. Allah Almighty says in the Holy Qur’an:

We did indeed send, before thee, messengers to their respective) peoples. (Qur’an 30: 47)

However, the situation changed after Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was sent as the Messenger of Allah. Now it became necessary that all the obstacles from the way of human intellectual growth be removed and the mankind be instructed to use their own mind, thinking, intellect, knowledge and vision. The international conditions of that particular era demanded that the entire world should now be reminded that they all are descendants of Adam and Eve. It was necessary to save them from narrow-mindedness, racism and other similar prejudices and a complete and perfect religion be presented for the whole humanity that transcends the boundaries of time and space and disregards castes, races and divisions. There was need for a religion that guarantees and protects individual and collective rights and demands fulfilling of obligations in a way where the objectives of the creation of human being are met.

To fulfill these needs Allah, the Almighty sent His Messenger (peace be upon him) with a complete and comprehensive message. Therefore, Allah, the Almighty addressed to his beloved Messenger, Muhammad ibn Abdullah (peace be upon him) and said:

We have not sent thee but as a universal (Messenger) to men, giving them glad tidings, and warning them (against sin). (Qur’an 34:28)

While explaining the global status of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) He also assigned to the Prophet the duty of delivering the message to the whole world. Therefore, He said:

Say: “O men! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allah. (Qur’an 7:158)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) was sent to the whole world as the last messenger of Allah who brought to mankind the comprehensive message of God – Islam. Islam means peace and submission to the will of God. By accepting Islam one completely submits to the obedience to Allah and promises to spend his life according to the injunctions of the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah.

Islam is such a code of conduct whose injunctions started to reveal on the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) at the age of forty in the year 610 CE. This is the religion that started with Adam (Allah’s mercy be upon him).

Almost for every nation and in every region, messengers of Allah were sent and all of them brought revelation-based message of Allah to their nations for the welfare of humanity and all of them had prayed for the arrival of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), as is mentioned in the Holy Qur’an:

Our Lord! send amongst them a Messenger of their own, who shall rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in scripture and wisdom, and sanctify them: For Thou art the Exalted in Might, the Wise. (Qur’an 2: 129)

The mission of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) – like other messengers – was to guide humanity towards the straight path. This was the path of the nation of Ibrahim (Allah’s mercy be upon him), as the Holy Qur’an states:

Say: “Verily, my Lord hath guided me to a way that is straight,- a religion of right,- the path (trod) by Abraham the true in Faith, and he (certainly) joined not gods with Allah.” (Qur’an 6: 161)

When it was time for the world to shift from localism to globalism, Allah, the Almighty converted the general guidance sent through His messengers into a comprehensive and complete code of life and sent it down through His last Messenger Muhammad ibn Abdullah (peace be upon him) as mercy and blessing as Allah said:

We sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all creatures. (Qur’an 21: 107)

Allah, the Almighty further states:

It is part of the Mercy of Allah that thou dost deal gently with them Wert thou severe or harsh- hearted, they would have broken away from about thee: so pass over (Their faults), and ask for (Allah’s) forgiveness for them; and consult them in affairs (of moment). Then, when thou hast Taken a decision put thy trust in Allah. For Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him). (Qur’an 3: 159)

High moral character of the Prophet (peace be upon him) had central role towards the success of his call for Islam.

He was always kind and merciful towards mankind. The Messenger (peace be upon him) used to invite people towards the religion of God in an appealing and courageous way. He liked justice, granted rights to everyone, supported the weak and vulnerable and called the people towards Islam with love, affection and serenity. These were his traits that attracted people towards Islam and they started to accept it.

Allah, the Exalted had sent His Messenger (peace be upon him) as a blessing to the world. He presented such a system of worship, spirituality, morality and dealings that brought people back into the folds of honour and respect, particularly those who had gone far below the dignity of humanity and had forgotten the values. He introduced a new social contract that respects one’s own rights and ensures that the person fulfill his obligations towards others. The social pillars of Islam transcend all boundaries of bigotry and rests upon the principles of respect for all human beings as stated by Allah, the Almighty:

We have honoured the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of our creation. (Qur’an 17:70)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) provided such a comprehensive system of worship that not only satisfies the human nature but also addresses the very reason of creation of mankind. Through the prayers and fasting, not only the bond between man and Allah was strengthened but these prayers also helped in developing the body, the soul and wisdom of every individual Muslim. Muslims cherish the bounties of their Lord through charity and pilgrimage. These prayers not only reinforce mutual bond between humans but also provide a lesson encouraging the spirit of sacrifice for the sake of other fellow Muslims. These prayers also provide an opportunity for Muslim Ummah to get united into a single body and be part of the sufferings and pains of others. This has been quoted in the Qur’an in the following manner:

Verily, this brotherhood of yours is a single brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore serve Me (and no other). (Qur’an 21:92)

The aim of Islamic system of worship is to raise the spirit of being subservient to Allah, the Almighty on the one hand, and to promote such high moral values that are reserved for welfare, national unity through fulfilling the rights and obligations, upholding a just system in the society, peace and tranquility, social harmony, fulfillment of promises, helping the weak and protecting the honour and progeny of all human beings on the other hand. Moreover, Islam seeks and asks to refrain from responding the evil with an evil; instead it encourages the use of good deed in correcting an evil, as said by Allah, the Almighty:

Nor can goodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were thy friend and intimate! (Qur’an 41:34)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) started to implement revelation based just system in Medani society in 622 CE. Therefore, in order to ensure the peace and security of Yasrib during the first year of hijrah and to bring in order the affairs of the inhabitants of that land, He took several important measures. Due to such measures the Aws, Khazraj, immigrants and other non-Muslim Arab clans became united under the political leadership of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Under this situation, the Jews were the only people who were outside the sphere of this social system. When the Prophet (peace be upon him) invited Jews into this social system, it became impossible for them to reject the offer for their own survival and other security reasons. Through this approach, Ansar the Helpers (Aws and Khazraj), Muhajirin the immigrants (Banu Umayyah and Banu Hashim), Arab clans and Jews (Banu Nuzayr, Banu Qurayzah, Banu Qaynuqa) all units of Medani society gathered and agreed on the Treaty of Medina (Meesaq-e- Madinah) and this Treaty became defacto constitution of the newly established state of Medina. According to this constitution, citizens of this state were given equal social rights. Security was ensured and religious independence and personal affairs were not only left to be decided in accordance with their own beliefs but also suitable circumstances were provided to facilitate such processes. The Treaty of Medina is one such first draft in the history of constitutions that was documented. It consists of 52 articles and it is one of the best examples of legal dictionary. This constitution was a guarantee of security for Muslims on the one hand and it provided equal rights to non-Muslims on the other hand. For example, amongst the jewish clans “Banu Qaynuqa”, who were goldsmiths, were considered the most honourable and “Banu Qurayzah” who were of lesser social value in the society and their blood money was less than that of Jews of Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nuzayr, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) abolished this injustice and equalised the blood money of Banu Qurayzah with the other clans of Jews. The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) invited people towards such a comprehensive religion that also declares belief in early prophets, messengers and their books as obligatory as the belief in Allah, the Almighty and His Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him).

Allah, the Exalted says:

The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, His books, and His messengers. “We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His messengers.” And they say: “We hear, and we obey: (We seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys.” (Qur’an 2:285)

The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) laid the foundation and established such a society in the city of Medina where Muslims, Jews and non-Muslim Arabs developed relationship based on justice, equality and fulfillment of rights and obligations with no discrimination; He (peace be upon him) was sent as a harbinger of good tidings and warner. Allah, the Almighty says:

Verily We have sent thee in truth, as a bearer of glad tidings, and as a warner: and there never was a people, without a warner having lived among them (in the past). (Qur’an 35:24)

The Qur’an taught all religious denominations including Muslims to adopt common principles. The Qur’an says:

Those who believe (in the Qur’an), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. (Qur’an 2:62)

As per the teachings of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), Islam, in fact, is the continuation and completion of the previous rightly guided religions and there is no contradiction between the revealed religions. The type of religious education the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) imparted, frees human being from the evils of sectarian bigotry. The golden principle “There is no compulsion in the religion” was, in fact, first introduced by Islam. Reconstruction of Pakistani society demands that Pakistanis neither demean other religions nor humiliate the founders of other religions. It is imperative for Muslims to bring others towards Islam only through convincing argumentation, while practicing their own religion independently and freely. The Holy Qur’an affirms this methodology by stating:

Invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious: for thy Lord knoweth best, who have strayed from His Path, and who receive guidance. (Qur’an 16:125)

No religion should be degraded as per the Holy Qur’an:

Revile not ye those whom they call upon besides Allah, lest they out of spite revile Allah in their ignorance. Thus have We made alluring to each people its own doings. In the end will they return to their Lord, and We shall then tell them the truth of all that they did. (Qur’an 6:108)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) established such equal and just system where the weak and vulnerable was protected against the mighty and powerful. This system was for Muslims as well as for non-Muslims and others. Enmity or hatred towards someone could not hinder in delivering this justice. Allah, the Exalted says:

O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well- acquainted with all that ye do. (Qur’an 5:8)

At another place He, the Almighty mentions:

Allah doth command you to render back your Trusts to those to whom they are due; And when ye judge between man and man, that ye judge with justice: Verily how excellent is the teaching which He giveth you! For Allah is He Who heareth and seeth all things. (Qur’an 4:58)

In this system of social justice, non-Muslims, women and children are specifically protected. Tyranny, arrogance, oppression, intolerance and other such acts are evil and are declared prohibited in Islam. Whereas, humbleness, modesty, kindness, tolerance and other such attitudes are commendable and are declared Islamic moral values in accordance with the injunctions of Islam. Human beings are directed to walk on earth with humbleness and invite people towards the religion wisely and intelligently. Allah, the Almighty has said in His Book:

Nor walk on the earth with insolence. (Qur’an 17:37)

Islam teaches that even if you have the ability to take revenge you should forgive and be good with the others as it is preferable command of the Holy Qur’an:

The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: for (Allah) loveth not those who do wrong. (Qur’an 42:40)

It is proven through religious teachings that the fundamental lesson of Islam is the protection of human dignity and preservation of human life. It is stated that whoever kills a soul it is as if he had slain entire mankind entirely. Killing of a human being is a grave sin as said by Allah, the Almighty in the Holy Qur’an:

On that account: We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone slew a person – unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land – it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. Then although there came to them Our messengers with clear signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued to commit excesses in the land. (Qur’an 5:32)

Islam, through the personality of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), established such a society where mutual respect, balance in affairs and modesty were the prominent features of Muslims. The Holy Qur’an mentions:

Thus, have We made of you an Ummat justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves. (Qur’an 2:143)

Moreover, Allah, the Almighty says:

And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive, (with sincerity and under discipline). He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the cult of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this (Revelation); that the Messenger may be a witness for you, and ye be witnesses for mankind! So establish regular Prayer, give regular Charity, and hold fast to Allah! He is your Protector – the Best to protect and the Best to help!. (Qur’an 22:78)

Thus, the Qur’an and Sunnah, the Treaty of Medina and the last sermon of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) provide us ample examples from Islamic injunctions about Islamic doctrines, payers, ideology, society and interaction among the human beings. The Muslim culture has been established in the light of Islamic code of conduct. The edifice of Islamic civilization was built on peace, love, harmony and tolerance instead of the use of force. Islamic culture & civilization provided guidance to the millions of people for maintaining balance between the religious and worldly life. In addition to the daily teachings and sermons, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) introduced formal education and training of the people through Friday sermons. In this manner, an example was set for the ruler of an Islamic State to unite the Muslim Ummah and to avoid discrimination in the society. Unfortunately, this tradition is weakened or very rare among the ruling class of an Islamic State. Keeping in view the existing situation, it is imperative to revive Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) as per the guidance of an Islamic State. This revival shall strengthen the ideological foundation of Pakistan.

The great Islamic Civilization began in 622 CE and almost in a century it influenced far flung areas to a great extent. This civilization adopted the principle of revival and had no hesitation in accepting positive developments from other ancient civilizations. Due to deviation from the Islamic traditions, this civilization could not maintain its supremacy among the world civilizations and its downfall began. The element of unity among Muslim societies diminished and the downfall that began in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries reached to its pinnacle during the nineteenth century. Consequently, by 1930 CE, no Muslim country could maintain its independence except Turkey and Afghanistan.

Next …. 2. Islamic Republic of Pakistan 


Index-Narrative Against Terrorism: Paigham-e-Pakistan


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